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数据恢复首页 > 技术文章 > 硬盘内部:主要部件

硬盘内部:主要部件


发布时间: 2010-5-15 21:38:03 来源:

本文的目的是告诉你如何建立现代硬盘驱动器或内置硬盘。 What are its main parts, how do they look and what are these parts names and abbreviations.什么是它的主要部分,他们究竟如何,哪些是这些地区的名称及缩写。 As an example we are going to disassemble 3.5" SATA drive.作为一个例子,我们将要拆卸3.5“SATA硬盘。

To make it more fun we going to tear to pieces pretty new 1TB Seagate ST31000333AS drive.为了让更多的乐趣,我们要撕得粉碎1TB的希捷ST31000333AS漂亮的新驱动器。 Let's take a look on our "Guinea pig".让我们看看我们的“豚鼠”的一面。

The fancy piece of green woven glass and copper with SATA and power connectors called Printed Circuit Board or PCB.织的绿色玻璃和SATA和电源连接器铜花式一块称为印制电路板或PCB。 PCB holds on place and wires electronic components of HDD.印刷电路板和电线的地方持有的硬盘驱动器的电子元件。 The black painted aluminum case with all stuff inside called Head and Disk Assembly or HDA.黑与所有内部称为头盘东西大会或港龙画铝盒。 The case itself called Base.案件本身称为基地。

Now let's remove PCB and see electronic components on the other side.现在,让我们看到除去PCB和电子元器件的另一边。

The heart of PCB is the biggest chip in the middle called Micro Controller Unit or MCU. PCB的核心是在所谓的微控制器单元或MCU中最大的芯片。 On modern HDDs MCU usually consists of Central Processor Unit or CPU which makes all calculations and Read/Write channel - special unit which converts analog signals from heads into digital information during read process and encodes digital information into analog signals when drive needs to write.在现代硬盘驱动器的微处理器通常由中央处理单元或CPU使所有计算和读/写通道 - 特别单位转换成数字信息从模拟信号到校长在阅读过程的模拟信号和数字信息进行编码时需要写入驱动器。 MCU also has IO ports to control everything on PCB and transmit data through SATA interface. MCU的IO口也有控制一切PCB上通过SATA接口和传输数据。

The Memory chip is DDR SDRAM memory type chip.内存芯片的DDR SDRAM内存芯片的类型。 Size of the memory defines size of the cache of HDD.内存的大小确定了对硬盘缓存的大小。 This PCB has Samsung 32MB DDR memory chip which theoretically means HDD has 32MB cache (and you can find such information in data sheet on this HDD) but it's not quite true.这个电路板具有32MB的DDR内存芯片,三星在理论上意味着硬盘有32MB的缓存(你可以找到数据等资料,在此硬盘表),但它并不完全符合事实。 Because memory logically divided on buffer or cache memory and firmware memory.因为从逻辑上划分内存缓冲区或高速缓存内存和固件的内存。 CPU eats some memory to store some firmware modules and as far as we know only Hitachi/IBM drives show real cache size in data sheets for the other drives you can just guess how big is the real cache size.吃一些CPU的内存来存储一些固件模块和据我们只知道日立/ IBM的硬盘数据实时显示在缓存大小的其他驱动器表,您可以只猜多大才是真正的高速缓存的大小。

Next chip is Voice Coil Motor controller or VCM controller.下一个芯片是音圈电机控制器或氯乙烯控制器。 This fellow is the most power consumption chip on PCB.这家伙是最消耗功率PCB上的芯片。 It controls spindle motor rotation and heads movements.它控制主轴马达转动和磁头运动。 The core of VCM controller can stand working temperature of 100C/212F.氯乙烯控制器的核心工作100C/212F经得起温度。

Flash chip stores part of the drive's firmware.闪存芯片的存储部分的驱动器的固件。 When you apply power on a drive, MCU chip reads content of the flash chip into the memory and starts the code.当您申请一个驱动电源,单片机芯片读入内存的闪存芯片内容,并启动代码。 Without such code drive wouldn't even spin up.如果没有这样的代码驱动器甚至不会转动。 Sometimes there is no flash chip on PCB that means content of the flash located inside MCU.有时没有对PCB闪存芯片,该芯片是指位于微控制器内部闪存的内容。

Shock sensor can detect excessive shock applied on a drive and send signal to VCM controller.冲击传感器可以检测到驱动器上的过度冲击应用和发送信号,氯乙烯控制器。 VCM controller immediately parks heads and sometimes spins down the drive.氯乙烯控制器立即公园负责人,有时向下旋转驱动器。 It theoretically should protect the driver from further damage but practically it doesn't, so don't drop you drive - it wouldn't survive.理论上应该保护它免受进一步的损害,但实际上它的驱动程序没有,所以不要放弃你开车 - 这将无法生存。 On some drives shock sensors used for detection even light vibrations and signals from such sensors help VCM controller tune up heads movements.在某些驱动器休克甚至光检测与震动传感器等传感器的信号用于帮助氯乙烯控制器调好头运动。 Such drives should have at least two shock sensors.这种驱动器应该至少有两个震动传感器。

Another protection device called Transient Voltage Suppression diode or TVS diode.另一种保护装置称为瞬态电压抑制二极管或TVS二极管。 It protects PCB from power surges from external power supply.它从电源保护电路板由外部电源浪涌。 When TVS diode detects power surge it fries itself and creates short circuit between power connector and ground.当检测到电源浪涌的TVS二极管薯条本身和它产生的电源连接器和地面之间的短路。 There are two TVS diodes on this PCB for 5V and 12V protection.有两台电视在这个电路板二极管为5V和12V的保护。

Let's take a quick look on HDA让我们在hda快看

You can see motor and heads contacts which were hiding under the PCB.你可以看到马达和磁头接触,并根据其中的PCB躲藏。 There is also small almost unnoticeable hole on HDA.也有小的几乎察觉在hda洞。 This hole called Breath hole.呼吸孔的称这个洞。 You maybe heard old rumor which says that HDD has vacuum inside, well that is not true.你也许听过这传闻说,旧硬盘内有真空,清楚,事实并非如此。 HDD uses Breath hole to equalize pressure inside and outside HDA.硬盘使用,以平衡内外压力HDA的呼吸孔。 From the inside Breath hole closed by Breath filter to make air clean and dry.由内而外的呼吸过滤器呼吸孔关闭,使空气清洁和干燥。

Now it is time to take a look under the hood.现在是时候采取引擎盖下的外观。 We are going to remove the drive's lid.我们将删除该驱动器的盖子。

The lid itself is nothing interesting.盖子本身是没有什么有趣的。 Just a piece of steel with rubber cord for dust protection.就在同一块橡胶防尘线钢。 Finally we are going to see HDA from inside.最后,我们将看到从里面HDA的。

Precious information stored on platters, you can see top platter on the picture.盘片上存储的宝贵信息,你可以看到在图片顶部盘片。 Platters made of polished aluminum or glass and covered with several layers of different compounds including ferromagnetic layer which actually stores all the data.盘片由抛光铝或玻璃,并与包括铁磁性层,实际存储的所有数据覆盖几层不同的化合物。 As you can see part of the platter covered with the Dumper.正如您可以看到与泥覆盖盘片的一部分。 Dumpers sometimes called as Separators located between platters, they reduce air fluctuations and acoustic noise.翻斗车也被称为分离器位于盘之间,他们减少空气和噪声波动。 Usually dumpers made of aluminum or plastic.通常翻斗车铝或塑料制成。 Aluminum dumpers better for cooling air inside HDA.铝翻斗车更好的冷却内部港龙航空。

Next picture shows platters and dumpers from the side下一张图片显示了从侧面盘片和翻斗车

Heads mounted on Head Stack Assembly or HSA.安装在头栈首脑大会或人血清白蛋白。 This drive has parking area closer to the spindle and if power is not applied on a drive, HSA normally parked like on the picture.此驱动器有停车场面积接近主轴,如果权力不是驱动器上的应用,如白蛋白通常停泊在图片上。

HDD is a precision mechanism and in order to work it requires very clean air inside.硬盘是精密的机制,为了工作需要进行非常干净的空气里。 During work HDD may create some very small particles of metal and oil inside.在硬盘工作可能产生的金属和石油内部一些非常小的颗粒。 To clean air immediately a drive uses Recirculation filter.要立即清洁空气过滤器的驱动器使用再循环。 This hi-tech filter permanently collects and absorbs even finest particles.这种高科技的过滤器收集和吸收,甚至永久最好的粒子。 The filter located on the way of air motion created by platters rotation.对空气的议案,盘片旋转的方式创建位于该过滤器。

Now we are going to remove top magnet to see what is under.现在我们要删除顶部磁铁,看看有什么根据。

HDDs use very strong Neodymium magnets.硬盘驱动器使用非常强大的钕磁铁。 Such a magnet is so strong it could lift up to 1300 times its own weight, so don't put your fingers between magnet and steel or another magnet - it can develop great impact.这种磁铁是如此坚固,甚至能举起来自身重量1300倍,所以不要放在磁铁之间的磁铁,钢或其他手指 - 它可以发展产生巨大影响。 You can see on this picture there is a HSA stopper on the magnet.你可以看到这张照片上有一个磁铁HSA的塞子。 HSA stoppers limit HSA movements, so heads wouldn't bang on the platters clamp and on the other side they wouldn't just fly off the platters.人血清白蛋白HSA的塞子极限运动,所以不会爆炸头在盘片钳和另一边,他们将不只是飞走的盘片。 HSA stoppers may have different construction but there are always two of them and they always present on modern HDDs. HSA的塞子可能有不同的建筑,但总有他们两个,他们总是对现代硬盘驱动器中。 On this drive the second HSA stopper located on HDA under the top magnet.在这第二白蛋白塞在hda位于顶下的磁铁驱动器。

And here is what you may see under the top magnet.这里是你可能会看到在顶级磁铁。

There is the other HSA stopper.还有其他人血清白蛋白瓶塞。 And you also can the second magnet.而且你还可以在第二磁铁。 The Voice coil is a part of HSA, Voice coil and the magnets form Voice Coil Motor or VCM.音圈是一个人血清白蛋白,语音线圈和磁铁部分表格音圈电机或氯乙烯。 VCM and HSA form the Actuator - a device which moves the heads. VCM和人血清白蛋白形成的驱动器 - 一个移动装置的负责人。 Tricky black plastic thingy called Actuator latch is a protection device - it will release HSA when drive un-parking (loading) heads normally and it should block HSA movements in the moment of impact if drive was dropped.棘手的黑色塑料物质的所谓锁存器是一种保护装置 - 它会释放驱动器时,人血清白蛋白非停车场(负载)首脑通常,它应该阻止在人血清白蛋白的影响目前走势如果驱动器被取消。 Basically it protects (should, at least) heads from unwanted movements when HSA is in parking area.基本上它保护(应至少)从不必要的运动头的时候,人血清白蛋白在停车面积。

On the next step we going to take out HSA在接下来的步骤中,我们将拿出白蛋白

HSA has precision bearing to make movements nice and smooth.人血清白蛋白的精密轴承,使运动的美好和顺利。 The biggest part of HSA milled from piece of aluminum called the Arm.人血清白蛋白的最大部分来自铝磨一块称为臂。 Heads Gimbal Assembly or HGA attached to the Arm.万向首脑大会,或附着在手臂的HGA。 HGAs and Arms usually produced on different factories. HGAs,通常对不同厂家生产的武器。 Flexible orange widget called Flexible Printed Circuit or FPC joins HSA and plate with heads contacts.灵活的橙色小部件称为柔性线路板或FPC的加入人血清白蛋白与头接触板。

Let's take closer look on each part of HSA.让我们更紧密的每HSA的部分外观。

Voice coil connected to FPC音圈连接到台塑

Here is the bearing这里是轴承

On the next picture you can see HSA contacts在接下来的图片你可以看到HSA的接触

The gasket makes connection airtight.这使得连接密封垫片。 The only way for air to go inside HDA is through the breathing hole.唯一的途径空气进去HDA的是通过呼吸孔。 On this drive contacts covered with thin layer of gold, for better conductivity.在此驱动器的接触与一层薄金,为更好的导电性。

This is the classic definition of the arm.这是手臂的经典定义。 Sometimes by the arm imply the whole metal piece of HSA.有时候暗示的手臂的人血清白蛋白全金属片。

The black small things at the end of HGAs called Sliders.在所谓的HGAs黑色滑块结束小事。 In many sources you can find that sliders claimed as actual heads but a slider itself is not a head it's a wing which helps read and write elements fly under the platter's surface.你可以在许多来源声称发现滑块作为实际负责人,而是一个滑块本身并不是一个头上的一读,写,帮助下飞行元素盘片表面的翅膀。 Heads flying height on modern HDDs is about 5-10 nanometers.飞行团长对现代硬盘高度约5-10纳米。 For example: an average human's hair is about 25000 nanometers in diameter.例如:平均人的头发的直径大约是25000纳米。 If any particle goes under the slider it could immediately overheat (because of friction) the heads and kill them that's why clean air inside HDA is so important.如果它可以去任何粒子立即过热(由于摩擦)的负责人,杀死他们,这就是为什么港龙内清新的空气是如此的重要根据滑块。 The actual read and write elements located at the end of the slider and they are so small that can only be seen under a good microscope.实际的阅读和书写在滑块的末尾元素和它们非常小,只能在一个良好的显微镜看到。

As you can see slider's surface is not flat, it has aerodynamical grooves.正如你可以看到滑块的表面不平整,有空气动力槽。 These grooves help a slider fly on the certain height.这些沟槽帮助滑块一定的高度上飞行。 Air under the slider forms Air Bearing Surface or ABS.滑块下表面的空气形成空气轴承或ABS。 ABS makes slider fly almost parallel to the platter's surface. ABS的飞行,使滑块几乎平行于盘片的表面。

Here is another picture of the slider这里是另一个图片的滑块

You can clearly see heads contacts.你可以清楚地看到元首接触。

There is very important part of HSA which we haven't discussed yet.还有很重要的人血清白蛋白,我们还没有讨论的一部分。 It called the preamplifier or preamp.它被称为前置放大器或前置放大器。 The preamp is a chip, which controls heads and amplifies signals from/to them.前置放大器是一个芯片,它控制元首和放大的信号/他们。

The reason why the preamp located inside HDA is simple - signals from heads are very weak and on modern HDDs have more than 1GHz frequency, if take the preamp out of HDA such weak signals wouldn't survive, they will disappear on the way to PCB.为何前置位于内HDA的理由很简单 - 从校长信号非常弱,对现代硬盘有超过1GHz的频率,如果采取前置出港龙等弱信号将无法生存,他们将消失在PCB上的方式。

The preamp has much more tracks going to the heads (right side) than to the HDA (left side), it's because HDD can work only with one "head" (pair of read an write elements) at a time.前置有更多的轨道去头(右侧),而不是在HDA(左侧),这是因为硬盘只能有一个工作的“头”(读一写的一次元素)对。 HDD sends control signals to the preamp and the preamp selects the head which HDD needs at the current moment.硬盘驱动器控制信号发送到前置放大器和前置选择头部硬盘在目前的时刻需要。 This HDD has six contacts per "head", why so many?这个硬盘有6个,每“头”的接触,为什么这么多? One contact is for ground, other two for read and write elements.一接触地面,其他的阅读和写作两个要素。 Other two for microactuators - special piezoelectric or magnetic devices which can move or rotate slider, it helps tune up heads position under a track.其他两个微执行器 - 特殊压电或磁装置,可移动或旋转滑块,它可以帮助调好头下一个轨道位置。 And finally the last contact is for a heater.最后的最后一次接触是一个加热器。 The heater can help adjust heads flying height.加热器可以帮助调整飞行高度负责。 The heater can heat the gimbal - special joint which connects slider to HGA, the gimbal made from two stripes of different alloys with different thermal expansion.加热器可以加热的万向节 - 联合特别是连接滑块的HGA的万向节从两个不同的热膨胀系数不同的合金条纹的。 Once gimbal got heated it bents itself toward platter's surface and this action reduces flying height.一旦得到了热烈的万向节是本茨对盘片表面上的行动本身,这降低了飞行高度。 After cooling down the gimbal straights itself.冷却后本身万向节直道。

Enough about heads, let's continue disassembling.够了头,让我们继续拆解。 We going to remove top dumper.我们什么时候取消顶自卸车。

That's how it looks这是它的外观

And next picture shows HDA without the top dumper and HSA今明图为没有顶自卸车与HSA港龙

Now the top platter is not covered, you also can see the bottom magnet现在,顶部盘片没有包括在内,你也可以看到底部的磁铁

Let's move further and remove the platters clamp让我们再进一步,并取出盘片钳

The platters clamp squeezing platters into the platters packet, so they wouldn't move.该盘夹挤包盘片的盘片,因此他们不会移动。

Platters sitting on the spindle hub, the platters clamp creates enough friction to hold platters on the hub when spindle rotates.盘坐在枢纽的主轴,夹具创造足够的盘片摩擦举办的枢纽盘片旋转时主轴。

Now when nothing holding platters on the hub we are going to remove the top platter and next picture shows what we may see under.现在,当任何持有的枢纽,我们要删除顶级盘片,盘片下一张图片显示了我们可能会看到下。

Now you see how platters packet has room for heads - platters laying on spacer rings.现在你看看盘片数据包的头房 - 盘片上间隔环的铺设。 You can see the second platter and the second dumper.你可以看到第二盘和第二自卸车。

The spacer ring is a precision detail made of non-magnetic alloy or polymer.该间隔环是精确详细的非磁性合金或高分子的。 Let's take it out.让我们把它拿出来。

Finally we are going to shake out the rest of the stuff from HDA and see the base最后,我们要动摇了从HDA的东西休息,看基地

That's how the breath filter looks.这是怎样呼吸过滤器外观。 And the breath hole located right under the breath filter.而位于下方的呼吸孔的呼吸过滤器。 Let's see the breath filter closer.让我们来看看呼吸过滤器密切。

Because air from outside definitely has dust the breath filter has several layers of filtration and it's much thicker than recirculation filter, it also may have some silica gel inside to reduce air moisture.因为从外面的空气肯定有灰尘的呼吸过滤器具有过滤几层,它的厚度比循环过滤,它也可能有一些内,以减少空气中的水分硅胶。


 

 
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